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Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Boarding is Basic Islamic Education in Indonesia

Boarding schools boarding schools, or often abbreviated cottage or boarding school, is a traditional boarding school, where the students all live with and study under the guidance of a teacher who is better known as Kiai and have a place to stay hostel for students. The students are in a complex that also provides a mosque for worship, study and space for other religious activities. This complex is usually surrounded by a wall to keep an eye out for an influx of students in accordance with applicable regulations. [1]. Pondok Pesantren are two terms that indicate one sense. The meaning is essentially a boarding school where the students learn, while the cottage means a simple house or shelter made ​​of bamboo. In addition, the lodge may be derived from Arabic meaning Funduq hostel or hotel. In Java, including Madura, Sunda and generally used the term lodge and boarding, being in Aceh known as term or menuasa rangkang boarding school, while in Minangkabau called mosque. [2] can also be understood as a boarding school education and religious teaching institutions, generally by way of non-classical , where an Islamic religious scholars to teach science to students-students based on the books written in Arabic by medieval scholars, and his students usually stay at the lodge (dormitory) in the pesantren. History == General == Generally, a boarding school originated from the a [[kiai | clerics]] in one place, then comes the students who want to study religion to him. {{Fact}} After increasingly more students are coming, there arose the initiative to set up a cottage or dorm in addition to the clerics. {{fact}} in ancient times the clerics do not plan how to build a hut, but the thought was how to teach religious knowledge in order to be understood by students. {{fact}} Kyai when it has not given attention to the place the places inhabited by the students, who are generally very small and simple. {{fact}} they occupy a building or a small house that they built themselves around the house clerics. {{fact}} the more the number of students, also increasing hut established. {{fact}} the students further popularize the boarding school, so it became known everywhere, such as in the lodges that arise in the days of [[Walisongo]]. Wahab, Rochidin. '' History of Islamic Education in Indonesia'' (New York: Alfabeta, CV, 2004) hal.153, 154 Definition boarding == == Etymology === === The term'' pesantren'' comes from the pe-santri'' late'', where the word "students" means students in [[Java language]]. {{Fact}} The term'' cottage'' derived from [[Languages Arab]]'' funduuq'' ('' 'فندوق''') which means inn. {{fact}} Special in [[Aceh]], boarding schools, also known as'' name'' dayah. Pesantren usually led by a [[Kyai]]. {{Fact}} To set the boarding school life, clerics appoint a senior students to organize class brothers, they are usually called'' urban villages'' cottage. {{Fact}} goal the students are separated from their parents and family is that they learn to live independently and simultaneously to improve relations with the clerics and also [[God]]. {{fact}} Other opinion, comes from the boarding students where students can be interpreted. {{Fact}} The word comes from the word Cantrik students (Sanskrit language, or maybe Java) which means that people who always follow the teacher, who then developed by the College Park Students in the system dormitory called Pawiyatan. {{fact}} term students also exist in the language in [[Tamil]], which means tutor, being [[C. C Berg]] argues that the term is derived from the term Shastri, which in India means a person who knows the sacred books of Hindu religion or a religious scripture scholar [[Hindu]]. {{Fact}} Sometimes it is also regarded as a composite word'' saint'' (both men) with the syllable'' tra'' (like help), so that the schools can mean a place of human right education. Fatah, H Rohadi Abdul, Taufik, M Tata, Bisri , Abdul Mukti. Reconstruction Pesantren'' Future'', (North Jakarta: PT. Listafariska Son, 2005), p.11 Basic Element === A === Pesantren The cottage ==== ==== A cottage is basically a traditional Islamic boarding school where the students (students) live together under the guidance of a teacher or more commonly known as Kyai Zamakhsyari Dhofir, 1982: 49 By the term is meant as a boarding school a form of education to Islamization institutionalized in Indonesia. Cottage or dorm is a place that has been provided for activities for the students. The existence of this cottage much support all existing activities. It is based distance cottage cottage with another means of making it easier for the usually adjacent Kyai and communication between students, and between students with other students. Thus creating a communicative situation in addition to the reciprocal relationship between Kyai and students, and between students with students. This is as stated by Zamakhsari Dhofir, that the attitude of reciprocity between Kyai and students in which the students assume Kyai seems to be his own father, while the students are considered as surrogate Kyai God that must be protected Zamakhsyari Dhofir, 1982: 49 Reciprocal attitude which creates a feeling of kinship and care for each other, making it easy for Kyai and chaplain to guide and supervise the students or the students. Everything that is faced by the students can be monitored directly by Kyai and cleric, so it can help provide a solution or direction quickly to students, to unravel the problems facing the students. Cottage circumstances very different from the colonial period to the present existence of the lodge. Hurgronje describes the state of colonial cottage (Imron Arifin in his book, Leadership Kyai), namely: "The cottage consists of a square-shaped building, usually constructed of bamboo, but in villages rather prosperous pillar consists of wood and stems are also made of wood . Cottage stairs connected to the well by a series of catwalks stones, so that most students do not wear shoes that can wash his feet before going up to the cottage. Just a simple cottage consists of a large room which was occupied with. There is also a cottage which seems perfect in dapati an alley (alley) are connected by doors. On the left there is the right alley small room with a narrow door, so as he entered the room the people are forced to bend, cendelanya small pieces and put on the bars. Furniture in it is very simple. In front of the small cendela there atao rattan mats and a short table of bamboo or wood, it is a fruit in the book " Imron Arifin, 1993: 6 Today the boarding school has been progressing in a way that the components that are meant were increasing and equipped facilities and infrastructure. In the history of its growth, the boarding school has undergone several phases of development, including the opening of a girls' cottage. With these developments, there is a women's lodge and cabin boys. So that a relatively large schools can accept students male and female students, with lodges differentiate by gender with strict regulations. Mosque ==== ==== The mosque is an element that can not be separated with the school and is considered as the most appropriate place to educate the students, especially in the practice of worship five times, sermons and Friday prayers and teaching of classical Islamic books. As well as Zamakhsyari Dhofir found: "Position the mosque as a center for education in Islamic tradition is a manifestation of the universalism of the traditional system of Islamic education. In other words, sustainability-centered system of Islamic education in mosques since the Quba mosque 'set up near Madina in the time of Prophet Muhammad SAW. still reflected in the boarding school system. Since the days of the Prophet, the mosque has been a center of Islamic education " Zamakhsari Dhofir, 1982: 49 Institutions pesantren in Java continues to maintain that tradition, even in contemporary times in the Muslim areas of life that are affected by the West, was met with some scholars dedicated to teaching the students in the mosques and give advices and suggestions to his students. Java is usually a Kyai who developed a first boarding school by establishing a mosque near his home. This step was taken on the orders usually Kyainya who have judged that he could lead a boarding school. Furthermore Kyai will teach his students (the students) in the mosque, so that the mosque is a very important element of the pesantren. Teaching ==== Books Classical ==== Since the growth of schools, teaching the classics are given in an attempt to continue the main purpose of schools is to educate prospective clerics loyal to traditional Islamic schools. Because the classical Islamic books are an integral part of the value and boarding schools that can not dipiah separated. The mention of classical Islamic books in the Islamic world is more popularly known as the "yellow book", but the origin of the term is not clearly known. Perhaps the mention of the term in order to limit the resulting colors in essay or paper of the book is yellow, but this argument is not quite right because at this time the books of classical Islam has many printed with white paper. Teaching classical Islamic books by caretakers cottage (Kyai) or cleric usually using sorogan system, wetonan, and bandongan. The classical Islamic books which are taught in schools according Dhofir Zamakhsyari can be classified into 8 groups, namely: (1) Nahwu (syntax) and Sharaf (morphology), (2) Fiqh (law), (3) Usul Fiqh (yurispundensi ), (4) Hadith (5) Tafsir, (6) monotheism (theology), (7) Mysticism and Ethics, (8) Other branches such as Tarikh (history) and Balagha " Zamakhsyari Dhofir, 1982: 50 Islamic books of classical literature and the grip is the Kyai in the pesantren. Its existence can not be separated by Kyai in pesantren. The books is a modification of classical Islamic moral values ​​of Islam, while Kyai is the personification of those values. On the other hand in addition to the growing necessity Kyai due mystical powers as well as his ability to master the classical Islamic books. In connection with this, Moh. Munif Hashim said: "The teachings contained in the yellow book remains a way of life and the lives of legitimate and relevant. Legitimate means that teaching is believed to stem from God's book of the Qur'an and Sunnah Rasulullah (Al-Hadith), and relevant teachings means it is still suitable and useful now or later " Moh. Munif Hashim, 1989: 25 Thus, the teaching of classical Islamic books are the main things in order to print a boarding school alumnus who master the knowledge of Islam even expected them to be Kyai. Pupils ==== ==== Pupils are called for the students who learn to explore religion in schools. Usually these students stay in the lodge or boarding schools that have been provided, but there are also students who do not live in a place that has been provided is commonly referred to by students as the bat has been the author pointed out in the discussion ahead. According Zamakhsyari Dhofir found: "Students are students who live in the boarding school to attend classes the yellow books or books on classical Islam, which generally consists of two groups of students, namely: - Pupils Mukim ie students or students who come from far away who live or lived in boarding schools. - Pupils Bats are students who come from villages around schools that they are not settled in the complex environment peantren but after following them home lesson Zamakhsari Dhofir, 1982: 51 In life in boarding schools, in general, they take care of their own daily needs and they got the same facilities between one and the other students. Students are required to obey the rules set out in the schools and any breach will be penalized according to the offenses committed. Kyai ==== ==== Kyai term is not derived from Arabic, rather than the Java language Manfred Ziemek, 1986 130 The word Kyai has great significance, sacred, and dituahkan. Besides Kyai title given to a man whose elderly, wise, and respected in Java. Kyai title also given to sacred objects and dituahkan, like a dagger and spear. However, the most widespread understanding in Indonesia, Kyai designation is intended for the founders and leaders of pesantren, a Muslim who has dedicated her life to honor God and deepen and disseminate the teachings of Islam as well as the outlook through education. Kyai serves as the central figure in the order of boarding school life, as well as leaders of pesantren. In this position kepesantrenannya value depends a lot on personality Kyai as role models and at the same time in the absolute discretion of the holder of the values ​​of the pesantren. In this case M. Chirzin Habib said that the clerics very big role in the field of handling faith, guidance amaliyah, dissemination and inheritance of science, moral guidance, education, and charitable lead and solve problems faced by the students and the community. And in terms of thinking more in the form of the establishment clerics patterns of thinking, an attitude, a certain orientation to the soul as well as in accordance with the lead personality clerics background M. Habib Chirzin, 1983: 94 Of opinions on the above it can be concluded that the role of Kyai determine the success of schools that care. Such a description of the common elements pesantren, which is basically a complete description of the terms and elements of a boarding school that classified the original despite the possibility of growing or grow in line with the times and needs of the community. Role === === Pesantren was originally a center penggemblengan values ​​and religious broadcasting [[Islam]]. {{Fact}} However, in its development, thereby widening the area agency that not only accelerate garapannya vertical mobility (with penjejelan religious materials), but also horizontal mobility (social awareness). {{fact}} Pesantren is no longer dwell on the religious-based curriculum ('''' regional-based curriculum) and tend to soar, but the curriculum also touches issues Kikian society ('' society- based curriculum''). {{fact}} Thus, schools can no longer be charged solely as a purely religious institution, but also (should) be a lively social institutions that continue to respond messy issues surrounding community. HS, Mastuki, El-sha, M. Ishom. Intellectualism Pesantren'''', (New York: Library Diva, 2006), p.1 Boarding School is the oldest Islamic institution which is a product of the culture of Indonesia. {{Fact}} The existence of pesantren in Indonesia started since Islam entered the country by adopting the religious education system has actually evolved long before the arrival of Islam. {{Fact}} As an educational institution which has long been entrenched in the country, recognized boarding schools have contributed greatly to the history of the nation. Haedari, H.Amin. Pesantren'' Transformation'', (New York: Media Nusantara, 2007), p.3 Many boarding schools in Indonesia only imposes the santrinya with a low cost, although some modern pesantren burden with higher costs. {{Fact}} Even so, when compared with some other similar educational institutions, modern schools are much cheaper. {{ fact}} masses Organizations (CBOs) that has the most Islamic boarding schools are [[Nahdlatul Ulama]] (NU). {{fact}} other Islamic organizations that also have a lot of schools are [[Al-Washliyah]] and [[Hidayatullah ]]. {{fact}} == Modernisasi pesantren == Sebab-sebab terjadinya moderenisasi Pesantren diantaranya: Pertama, munculnya wancana penolakan taqlid dengan “kembali kepada [[Al-Qur’an]] dan sunah” sebagai isu sentral yang mulai di tadaruskan sejak tahun 1900.{{fact}} Maka sejak saat tiu perdebatan antara kaum tua dengan kaum muda, atau kalangan reformis dengan kalangan ortodoks/konservatif, mulai mengemukan sebagai wancana public.{{fact}} Kedua: kian mengemukannya wacana perlawanan nasional atas kolonialisme belanda.{{fact}} Ketiga, terbitnya kesadaran kalangan Muslim untuk memperbaharui organisasi keislaman mereka yang berkonsentrasi dalam aspek sosial ekonomi.{{fact}} Keempat, dorongan kaum Muslim untuk memperbaharui sistem pendidikan Islam.{{fact}} Salah satu dari keempat faktor tersebut dalam pandangan [[Karel A. Steenbrink]], yang sejatinya selalu menjadi sumber inspirasi para pembaharu Islam untuk melakukan perubahan Islam di Indonesia.''Majalah Tajdid'' (ciamis:Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengembangan, 2009), hal. 358 National figures == == Some graduate schools have also been active in the national stage, which is famous among other things: * [[Hasyim | KH. Hashim Ash'ari]] (Founder Jam'iyah Nahdlatul Ulama), * [[Hasyim | KH. Hasyim]] (Chairman PB [[Nahdlatul Ulama]]), {{fact}} * [[Nurcholish Madjid | Prof. Nurkholish Madjid]] ex ([[Rector]] [[University Paramadina]]), {{fact}} * [[Din Shams | Dr. Din Shamsuddin]] (Secretary General [[Indonesian Ulema Council]] (MUI). {{Fact}} * [[Abdurrahman Wahid | KH. Abdurrahman Wahid]], one of the famous religious scholars, is a former [[President of the Republic of Indonesia]]. {{Fact}} He was the son of [[Wahid Hasyim | KH. Wahid Hasyim]], who is also a leader Kyai Indonesian independence movement and had twice served as Minister of Religion in Indonesia. {{Fact}} While his grandfather was [[Hasyim | KH. Hashim Ash'ari]], an Indonesian national hero and founder of the [[Nahdlatul Ulama]], one of the largest Islamic organization in Indonesia. {{Fact}}


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